Dating of the intrauterine fetal demise us voice dating
From those assessments they were able to provide far more specific information about the absolute timing of external macerative changes, internal histologic changes and placental changes.Related to external characteristics they found that changes occurred somewhat more rapidly than previously assumed.
With antenatal death more than a few days prior to delivery other changes begin to occur including generalized hypermobility of joints, change in the color of the fetal skin surfaces to a pale grey-yellow and liquefaction of internal organs.
That scale of severity of maceration is as follows: None Slight -- skin slippage, rare bullae, little (e.g.
scrotum only or single spots of skin loss elsewhere) or no denudation Mild -- focal denudation of multiple regions without other changes Moderate-- generalized skin maceration/ denudation but without significant compressive changes Advanced -- compression and/or mummification and/or internal liquefaction Examples of each of these are shown in the figures.
The death is indicated by the fact that after such expulsion or extraction, the fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles.
Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions; respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps." In the United States, the term stillbirth or fetal demise does not have a standard definition.
We would be interested in knowing whether inclusion of such an estimate would be helpful to referring health care providers. Genest DR, Williams MA, Greene MF: Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: I. Genest DR: Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: II. Genest DR, Singer DB: Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: III. Wigglesworth JS: The macerated stillborn fetus, in Perinatal Pathology, Philadelphia: Saunders, 1984, pp. *Copies of these and other relevant articles are available for personal use by request from Wi SSP.